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BASIC RULES of SEED SOWING
Seeds need water and oxygen to germinate, so they are best started in a light, loose soil that will not compact, get soggy, or crust over. Free flow of water & air are a must. Cover seed with 2 - 4 times their thickness of soil.  Large seed can be soaked overnight and planted singly. Barely cover small seed, and sprinkle fine seed on the surface and water by misting. Plant flat seed edgewise and winged seed with wing uppermost or broken off. Sowing too thickly wastes seed and weakens the crowded seedlings, but some kinds sprout best if crowded. Lightly tap soil to insure good contact with the seed. Keep soil moist, not soggy, and do not allow to dry out.

Common causes of failure are soil too heavy, wet or cold, or allowed to dry out, not giving slow seeds long enough to come up, pests eating the seeds or seedlings, and not giving dormant seeds the proper pretreatment. Common causes of seedling loss are damping off due to poor air circulation & over watering, drying out or burning due to placing in full sun or outdoor conditions too quickly, transplanting shock, and damage by insects, slugs and snails at night.

Most seeds germinate best at warm (70°F) temperatures. Plants from temperate regions, the arctic, high mountains and high deserts often germinate best at cool temperatures. Plants from winter-rain areas like California, the Mediterranean, Chile, S. Africa and parts of Australia also like cool temperatures.

SEEDS WITH HARD SHELLS
These have hard impermeable shells and need nicking or scratching the coat to allow water to enter and the seed to germinate. The best results are from the least amount of nicking that will allow water to enter and the seed to swell. Many failures are due to over-nicking and damaging the seed.
Different seeds need varying amounts of nicking. Most do best with lightly rubbing on sandpaper or a file until just the very outer coat is scratched. Often just scratching with a knife-point or scriber works. Others need serious nicking, sometimes with a hacksaw until the white interior shows. Nicking seed one by one can be tedious but is most effective. Larger lots can be rubbed between two boards covered with sandpaper, or shaken or tumbled in a can lined with sandpaper. Then soak the seed overnight and any that don't swell or soften should be re-nicked and soaked again until swollen.
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